As a member of the Music Library Association’s Reference Sources subcommittee, I recently contributed to the MLA blog. My post is a Reference Sources Spotlight on BrowZine, a subscription platform for journal discovery that offers a visual means of browsing an academic institution’s e-journal collection. Visit the post (linked above) for information!
Although this is the final blog assignment for my Social Informatics class, I will probably continue to comment occasionally on the topic. It is evident that information and communication technologies (ICTs) have inundated our society and continually impact many areas in our lives. Our verbal language reflects the influence of ICTs and social media in our daily lives. We discuss events or ideas found on “blogs” and “Facebook,” our favorite books are “tagged” with the central ideas or characters and reviewed on GoodReads. E-mails take the place of phone calls in many businesses and teens are overheard telling friends to “text” them. When we search for information online, we “Google” it. But how often do we stop and think about the privacy issues associated with our daily use of ICT and social media? Many of us talk about it and might even glance at the security and privacy policies on certain websites. We might control various aspects, such as who can “see” our information, but in reality once the information is outside our own sphere we no longer have absolute power over our own words and ideas. Shadows of our information will persist in cyberspace for years.Which brings about the question pertaining to social informatics and privacy issues – how much should we share?
Part of our difficulty deciding what to share online may have to do with the all-inclusive nature of social media. Although people may have many “friends” on a social platform, not all of those friends are considered strong relationships. Sabine Trepte (2015) refers to these natures as “warm” and “cold” affordances. The volume of self-disclosure exhibited to others generally changes with the level of relationship. We don’t usually share as much personal information with people verbally until we get to know them a little better. However, on social media, it is difficult to divide the groups of people with whom we interact into the various levels of closeness. As a result, we provide details about our lives in more detail than ever before. Spence Witten (2014) wrote in his blog, “Sites like Facebook and Twitter have us volunteering details about our daily lives in a way that really has no precedent. We share our locations with geo-tagging apps and functions, such as Foursquare and Facebook’s check-in feature. And we offer up images of our personal lives, available for all to see, on Instagram.”
Is this now something we all just decide to go along with? Do we become desensitized to the lack of privacy when it is related to social media? Social media definitely challenges us when it comes to understanding privacy boundaries. According to Trepte (2015), the ability to comment on others’ status updates, upload pictures, or tag friends is similar to other human interactions in relationships. These experiences contribute to “warm” affordances and break down the privacy barriers. They also contribute to the struggle we feel toward social media privacy issues. Although society has always been challenged by interactions and privacy issues to some extent, social media has presented an entirely new dimension to relationships. The turbulence we feel as we decide whether to share a friend’s photo, or comment on information, requires additional communication and negotiation. So in essence, our high-tech communication, has led to the need for even more communication, in order to respect the privacy of all those involved with social media.
Neiburger, E. (2010, November/December). User-Generated Content. Library Technology Reports, 46(8), 13-24.
Trepte, S. (2015). Social media, privacy, and self-disclosure: The turbulence caused by social media’s affordances. Social Media + Society, 1(1-2). doi:10.1177/2056305115578681.
Witten, S. (2014). Social media presents unprecedented privacy issues. Lunarline [blog]. Retrieved from https://lunarline.com/blog/2015/06/social-media-presents-privacy-issues/.
Our readings this week certainly fit in with the current political events, especially when noting how social media is reinventing government. Facebook is full of comments (I can’t even call them debates anymore) about who is the better (or worse) candidate for President of the United States. If the government actually adopted ICT and social media as quickly as the people of the United States, perhaps it would help our government to run a little more efficiently. As the consulting firm, Accenture, noted in 2012, “Social media is mainstream, and governments must develop social media savvy to interact with people and use them as sources of feedback and innovation.”
However, another one of our readings exposed a cave in Boyers, Pennsylvania that houses the paperwork for retired government workers. All the documentation for new retirees is on paper. All the processing is done by people, by hand. Some information is entered into a computer, but then it is printed back out again for placement into the retiree’s file folder. Several attempts have been made to update the system and introduce technology to assist the process. Two recent attempts have failed and the workers continue to process paperwork. On paper. Sadly, even as late as 2014, retirees still wait weeks or months for their paperwork to be processed. It seems that an updated way to process retirement papers will not be implemented for quite some time, even though workers say they are willing to change (Fahrenthold, 2014).
The government would not allow photos inside the facility, but here is The Washington Post’s illustration from: Data-Mining. The old fashioned way
These articles reinforced my belief that I do NOT want to work for the federal government. The slowness to adopt change, along with all the red tape and paperwork attached to government documents is especially frustrating to me. After my experiences in the military during the 1980s, where I worked on telecommunications equipment from World War II, (one had a serial number of 1), I know that the response to suggested changes is often “If it isn’t broke, why fix it?” It was good to see, however, that several of our readings demonstrated that state and city governments are much quicker to utilize new technologies than the federal government.
It heartens me to find smartphone apps developed by cities and states that allow quicker, easier access and functionality for various tasks, such as parking. Not long ago, many public parking meters were updated to accept credit or debit cards. Now, it appears that an app for the mobile smartphone can take care of parking issues (Brown, 2012). A customer receives a text when the meter expires, then the customer simply adds money to the meter through the app without going back to the car! Gone are the days of running to the meter to avoid the tickets. Television commercials featuring meter monitors will soon need to be phased out, as they will no longer have a cultural context.
Interestingly, most of the areas that grasp new technologies quickly are user-centered. Parking meters, banking, and other such businesses understand the need to move into technology-focused arenas. Perhaps, in addition to the huge volume of information the federal government handles, that is why it moves so slowly. Most of the departments do not cater to customers or users, thus may not feel the need to keep up with the latest technology. The federal government is somewhat removed from public service, unlike a state or city government, which deals with the public on a smaller, more personal scale. Although there are certain areas of the government implementing technology, such as the federal tax return e-file program, the federal government will probably always be behind the technology times. The largest cog moves the most slowly.
Accenture: Consulting, Technology, Outsourcing. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.accenture.com.
Brown, J. (2012 October 3). Governments expand mobile payments to everything from parking to property taxes. Retrieved from http://www.govtech.com/e-government/Governments-Expand-Mobile-Payments-to-Everything-from-Parking-to-Property-Taxes.html.
Fahrenthold, D. (2014, March 22). Sinkhole of bureaucracy. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/national/2014/03/22/sinkhole-of-bureaucracy/.
I love technology. Usually, I am early in adopting new forms as they are introduced. So of course, when I think about technology in schools, my first thought is “YES! That would be wonderful!” Then, after a little more reflection, I start to think about the vast number of youth in the United States whose families cannot afford many new technologies. Often in today’s society, both parents work a job, sometimes two, just to make ends meet. So how could they possible afford the technology that schools would require at home in order for students to successfully embrace more ICTs in their daily learning lives?
The articles for class this week really supported my blog thoughts for music education on September 12. I do agree with utilizing ICTs in the schools and teaching the students through interactive communication. However, reflecting on the economics of information and digital inequality that we discussed in class a couple weeks ago, I wanted to take a closer look at the numbers to see if ICTs are really advantageous for schools. According to this short article with visual maps, (July 2015) income, education, race, and residence location all contribute toward the barriers to access. US Digital Inequality
The Council of Economic Advisers Brief in July 2015 demonstrates a definite association between home internet use and median income in 2013.
In addition to an income divide, geography also contributes to the digital inequality. Since income affects where people live, the geographic divide is especially evident in rural areas or large cities. In Western rural areas, no access may be due to lack of infrastructure, but in the South, areas such as tribal lands cannot monetarily support home internet use (Council, 2015). In urban cities, the income divide is reflected in the home use of the internet, as seen in the Council of Economic Advisers chart.
The same locations that reflect limited home internet use also house the schools that struggle with financial support, usually in the poorest sections of a city. The Greenlining Institute (2009) noted that digital inequality creates additional social inequality, which results in a perpetual cycle of inequality for low-income families. So how would ICTs in the school benefit these students?
Not only is it important to offer access to computers and internet use within the schools, but also in the local public libraries. Grants and other forms of funding are extremely important to these institutions in order to build the needed infrastructure. However, as schools integrate ICTs, a vital consideration is compatibility with mobile phone technology. The Greenlining Institute notes that cell phones are increasingly important devices for employment opportunities – both for job searches and to be accessible for employers (2009). Likewise smartphones could fill a gap for students, especially in high school, by giving them tools to access technology.
If students do not learn technological skills in school, they remain disadvantaged as they enter the work force. Thus, when schools consider integration of ICTs in their lesson plans, teachers should consider the best means for their students to access the information and implement the technology accordingly. Look for appropriate funding within the school system. Check with the local libraries for accessibility by the students. Find out if smartphone access is prevalent within the student body. If these conditions can be verified, ICTs in schools would be of benefit to all students. Accessibility is key to learning new technologies and breaking the cycle of inequality.
Council of Economic Advisers. (2015). Mapping the digital divide. Council of Economic Advisers Issue Brief, July 2015. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/wh_digital_divide_issue_brief.pdf.
The Greenlining Institute. ( 2009). Digital inequality: Information poverty in the information age. The Greenlining Institute: A Multiethnic Public Policy Research and Advocacy Institute. Retrieved from http://greenlining.org/issues/telecommunications-technology/2009/digital-inequality/.
The topic of gender and technology is personal for me. The readings for class this week provoked a lot of reflection on my earlier years and examination of the choices I made. In the late 1970s, when I was beginning to examine various careers, my parents divorced, leaving my mother with few skills to support a teenager and three toddlers. Although I was interested in technology, specifically electronic engineering and computer science, my mother encouraged me to enter the secretarial classes offered in my high school, rather than the college prep classes or the technical classes offered. She thought that it guaranteed the means for me to earn a living, but didn’t really realize the discrepancy in pay (that still exists today) between clerical and technical positions. In addition, during the 1970s, fewer than 10% of women attending college enrolled in engineering (US Dept. of Education, 2004). Thus, instead of chemistry, trigonometry, or drafting, I enrolled in typing, shorthand, and accounting. I did manage to take an introduction to data processing class and really enjoyed it. Computer languages fascinated me. Nevertheless, like so many other females, I succumbed to the pressure from those around me to take a more traditional path.
Due to financial constraints and lack of guidance, after high school I enrolled in a two-year college program to pursue a degree in secretarial practice. Not surprisingly, I flunked out after the first year. My job search led me to a temporary position at IBM, doing data entry of the downtime of microchip testing machines. The computer network system often went down, which resulted in extra time on the job with nothing to do. I began to hang around the technicians who fixed the test equipment and became fascinated with the schematics and troubleshooting process of the test machines. Attending technical school seemed like a great option. For me, exposure to some of the options of education open to me contributed to consideration of new directions.
Not long after my temporary position ended, a friend came back to town on recruiting duty for the Army. Although I had not previously considered the military as a means of attaining my education, he soon informed me that the Army would guarantee me both my training school and where I would serve my time. Within a year, I had enlisted in the Army as a 36H (Dial/Manual Central Office Repairer). My ten-month technical school included basic electronics, pc board troubleshooting, electro-mechanical switch repair, and telephony basics. Here is a link to the equipment I learned to repair: Strowger switch. Interestingly, today’s computer networks are still based on many of these principles! It has been fascinating to watch the changes from dial-pulse landline telephones to cellular technology.
During my time in the military (in the early 1980s), women were noticeably absent in my field. My technical school had about 300 students attending at any given time, of which only 25-30 were women. At least 5 of those did not complete the program. At my duty stations, although women worked other non-technical positions, repair and maintenance jobs were primarily held by men. I was the only female technician at the base telephone central offices in Germany and one of two women in my electronic maintenance shop in Georgia. Base telephone had 10 soldiers and my shop in Georgia had 25 soldiers, resulting in an 8-10% ratio of women in each place.
The gender and technology issue was apparent at each of my duty stations. Although most of the time I had friends that looked after me as a little sister, sexual harassment was very real. Innuendos, off-color jokes, and other verbal banter was commonplace. You either laughed along, ignored it, or were shunned and badmouthed. This was before many of the protective measures and laws for women in the military were put in place. During my school training, we were in class with other Army soldiers, Marines, and Navy seamen. We also had military personnel from other countries attend the school. The two Nigerians I was in class with stand out in my mind. They didn’t really speak much English, but stared at me constantly. I assumed that a woman in the military, especially in technology, was not a norm for them. It was quite uncomfortable to be around them.
At my first duty station, it was almost three months before most of the men I worked with acknowledged that I could do the job. I had to work harder than other new soldiers coming to the telephone central office in order to prove my capabilities. After a year, I was selected for a special team – we were assigned to document and prepare the phone system for the entire 5th Signal Command in Baden-Württemberg, West Germany for digital telephone conversion. We used to joke about being an “equal opportunity team.” Our Hispanic team leader (E-6 staff sergeant), two African-Americans (E-5 sergeant, E-4 specialist), and myself (E-4 specialist), a white female, worked for a white male (E-8 master sergeant). However, that was the best duty assignment I had during my four years. We all accepted each other and worked well together. When I left there to return to the United States, I became part of an electronic maintenance shop. At first, they tried to put me on paperwork exclusively. After I spoke up, we all took turns occasionally. They also assumed that I could make coffee….but they only asked me once. That was never a strength of mine. When we would go out to the field to practice maneuvers with the communication vans and equipment, many of the guys would not let me carry the heavier equipment (even though I was quite capable). They would also ask the other maintenance person to repair equipment, rather than me, even if I was available. It was a difficult duty station. Walking across the motor pool to get to my shop, catcalls were common. The culture was not conducive to women and I was glad to leave. It also influenced my decision not to re-enlist.
As many women do, I married and had children. This resulted in putting my own career on hold – I became primarily a stay-at-home mother and my skills were not put to use. I chose to stay home because I had not established a career and doing so would have taken more commitment than I was willing to give at that time. Much of the technical work I did required on-call time, which would have been difficult as the primary caregiver. In addition, as I did not have the formal technical education at that point (degree), I could not make enough money to justify paying for day care. Although my secretarial background provided part-time jobs over the years while I raised my children, I have maintained my interest in technology. As my children got older, I began to consider a return to my initial interests. I started college when my youngest child did and we graduated together from Maryville College, where I also worked full-time as an administrative assistant (so those skills have come in handy). Since I lack the solid math background, it would be difficult for me to pursue an engineering degree now. However, I am really excited that information science has become so technical. I am able to combine my love of libraries together with my technical skills.
Due to many of my experiences, I believe it is important to guide young students (before middle school) toward their interests, especially female ones. It is vital to identify lower income students and educate them about available career choices. I know in my case, if I had been fortunate enough to find a mentor in my early years, I would have chosen a different path. Although I value my experiences as they are, my earning power over the years would have been drastically higher.
All of the articles we read this week were great. I am fascinated by the impact of technology for women, especially in developing countries. However, I find it interesting that much documentation supports the fact that women are not as prevalent in technological job positions, yet the library profession remains populated primarily by females. Statistics from 2006 and 2007 gathered by Melissa Lamont (2009) showed women librarians published as often in men in most library journals except for JASIS&T, where only 30% of the authors were women. Thus, despite the growing technical expertise required of librarians, women are participating and excelling. Although higher administration in libraries still consists primarily of men, the next generation of information specialists may be able to generate change, since so many information specialists are female. Once women are able to access higher administration, perhaps the changes will trickle downward and we will see more women involved in information and communication technology.
Lamont, M. (2009, September). Gender, technology, and libraries. Information Technology and Libraries, 28(3), 137-142.
US Department of Education, completion survey. (2009) National Science Foundation.
The innovations related to music production and sales have changed the music business for a majority of musicians and their fans. Traditionally, music users discovered songs or albums through radio play and word-of-mouth (Dewan & Ramaprasad, 2014). However, as Mangold and Faulds (2009) point out, social media has become an extension of those traditional means. Social media reaches hundreds or thousands of people instead of a handful of friends, thereby drastically increasing the visibility of an artist. Not only is social media used for sharing information about music songs and albums, but the music itself is shared through social media, often for a very low cost (Dewan & Ramaprasad, 2014).
It is difficult to compare sales and marketing of record production companies and mainstream music to the surge of independent artists now recording and producing their own music, then marketing it on social media. Dewan and Ramaprasad (2014) conducted a study based on the context of traditional music industry. They note that music has two characteristics that contributed to the disruption of the industry – music is both an information good and an experience good. Thus, music is shareable and can be broken away from the album format. This allows music to be shared and sampled through social media and other new technologies. Noting a decline in music industry sales, the study measured blog buzz, or blog posts related to an album or song. Although a narrower measure than social media such as Facebook, the results did correlate with online music activity such as Amazon music sales ranks, showing the blog buzz to be a reliable overall measure of social media music interaction. Their findings propose that the relationship between social media and sales of the single song sales is negative. I do not fully agree with their findings, as they primarily examined music through a traditional lens focused on album or song sales, rather than exposure.
Granted, the numbers for industry sales may reflect negative progress, but the independent artists now on the charts of various social media webpages demonstrate a market that did not previously exist. Musicians can now record their own mp3s, upload them to a social media site, and market their own music. Bands now enjoy a more regional popularity, which is reflected on several sites such as Bandcamp. In his blog, The Music Entrepreneur, David Weibe (2015) lists 10 important social media sites for musicians. Of the 10, which included business networking sites such as LinkedIn and Google+, four stand out to me as a means for marketing mp3 music – Facebook, Bandcamp, SoundCloud, and ReverbNation.
Facebook, in addition to personal social pages, offers Musician/Band pages, which has pages such as “About” the band, and pages for sound links (Bandpage), events, photos, and videos. Music can be streamed or shared, but not downloaded. Bandcamp (https://bandcamp.com/) caters to three user communities – fans, artists, and labels. Music can be streamed free, purchased for download, uploaded for sales, or promoted to labels participating on the site. With plentiful filters for searching, Bandcamp even lists the top artists for a particular region. SoundCloud (https://soundcloud.com/) also has a premium subscription account, but the free account allows streaming music. Their collection consists of many music genres, including classical and art music. This makes is a good choice for composers of contemporary western art music, in addition to popular genres. ReverbNation (https://www.reverbnation.com/), which primarily offers popular genres of music, such as rock, hip hop or country, features promotional tools for artists. It heavily promotes local music, shows, and artists. ReverbNation has free levels of membership, but also has premium subscription account.
In the midst of rapidly expanding innovations for music, social media, and technology, the former model of sales, marketing, and music by record companies and studios should no longer be solely considered as an accurate measure. Many musicians that I have read about or talked to now say that concert/show sales, rather than music songs/albums/mp3s are responsible for generating income. Thus, an examination of bands that perform in various venues and the attendance may demonstrate the shift, along with an evaluation of how social media impacts the promotion of concerts and events. Also to be considered are counts of streaming music, which demonstrate the appeal to listeners.
I am headed over to ReverbNation now, to explore the bands of the Knoxville music scene…maybe I will catch a show this weekend.
Dewan, S., & Ramaprasad, J. (2014 March). Social media, traditional media, and music sales. MIS Quarterly 38(1), 101-121.
Mangold, W. G., & Faulds, D. J. (2009). Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Business Horizons 52, 357-365.
Wiebe, D. (2015, May 15). Top 10 social media sites for musicians to focus on [infographic]. The Music Entrepreneur (blog). http://dawcast.com/top-10-social-media-sites-for-musicians-to-focus-on-infographic/.
As I sat in the music library at UT last week, another student mentioned that a music theory professor had discussed social media and blogging within the context of his music theory classes. A few days later, I passed that professor in the hallway and stopped to chat with him for a few minutes. The conversation turned to how social media is used within music education. After we talked, he emailed me several articles and links about the topic. Not only does this demonstrate how innovation plays a role in the use of social media, but also how technologies can influence social activities in diverse contexts. The role of social media is shaping communication patterns in education.
As Cole stated, users are defined by social, cultural, and technological facets (2006). The particular set of users I refer to in this post are students and teachers. So likewise, their cultural focus is academics and the technological aspect focuses on social media. The new generation of students is part of the “Net Generation,” having spent most of their lives connected to the internet. They stay connected through social media and are comfortable sharing personal information in the internet. These students prefer quick access to information, often from multiple multimedia sources, with pictures, sounds, and video, rather than text (Chong, 2008). So it makes sense that music education should follow the same way and look to innovative new tools to assist with learning and teaching.
The discussion I had with the music theory professor was primarily about Noteflight, a music notation software program, his use of it in the classroom, and how it encouraged interaction between students, teachers, and their compositions (www.noteflight.com). Since it is available as a free program, it works well for education. In addition, Noteflight offers social media functions and communities. For instance, speech bubble tabs are located across the top of the scores, allowing students and teachers a way to comment on the music score. Other options available include a “favorite” button (McConville, 2012). Although these are the only functions so far, it seems likely that additional integration into social media applications such as Facebook or Twitter will be added soon. These innovations turn music theory education into an interactive learning experience, rather than a one-sided listening and evaluation.
Other applications of technologies contribute to music instruction, and social media researchers agree that online communities form conceptual frameworks to exchange experiences and reflections, and in turn, enhance learning (Albert, 2015). McConville (2012) discusses other Web 2.0 environments that enhance pedagogical instruction. Some YouTube videos display musical scores as they play, allowing analysis or play-along. According to Giebelhausen (2015), even music teacher workshops are available on YouTube, often through subscriptions to channels, such as Dalcroze Society of America: https://www.youtube.com/dalcrozeusa/ or NAfME (National Association for Music Education): https://www.youtube.com/NAfMEmusic. The music education community also has communities using Twitter hashtags, such as #musiced. Several Twitter hashtags connect to time-specific, focused discussion groups. For instance, #musedchat (music education), is online Mondays at 5pm, giving teachers the opportunity to network and learn about current or new innovations. Additionally, conducting students can watch videos of different versions of repertoire, thus are able to learn different styles, expressions, and conducting gestures from a number of more experienced maestros (Giebelhausen, 2015). The available online tools contribute to a broader music education, through the sensory experience.
In my graduate level class on musical styles, every week each student researched a composer and musical work in an assigned time period, and then contributed to an online Wikia community: http://musc520-musical-styles-s14.wikia.com/wiki/MUSC520_Musical_Styles_S14_Wiki. We posted the history and background of the composer, an mp3 sample of their work, and a score. The interactive style of learning greatly enhanced the class. Thus, innovation on the web has begun to impact the community of music educators of all levels, from grade schools to universities.
Albert, D. J. (2015). Social media in music education: Extending learning to where students “live.” Music Educators Journal, 102(2), 31-38. doi:10.1177/0027432115606976.
Chong, E. K. M. (2015). Teaching music theory using blogging: Embracing the world of web 2.0. Proceedings of the 17th International Seminar of the Commission for the Education of the Professional Musician (CEPROM), International Society for Music Education (ISME) July 2008. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233753349_Teaching_Music_Theory_Using_Blogging_Embracing_the_World_of_Web_20.
Cole, F. (2006). Appreciating context in social informatics: From the outside in, and the inside out. Proceedings of ASIS&T Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, Social Informatics Workshop, November 3-8, 2006.
Giebelhausen, R. (2015). What the tech is going on? Social media and your music classroom. General Music Today, 28(2), 39-46.
McConville, B. (2012). Noteflight as a Web 2.0 tool for music theory pedagogy. Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy, 26.
My introduction to Social Informatics has begun. Likewise, my venture into the blogging world begins. Although I have often read other people’s blogs, I had not yet stepped into the world of crafting my own blog until this assignment. What better place to begin, than with an exploration of Social Informatics. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become an important part of our daily lives. We communicate through email, texts, and social media applications. Use of the internet and social networks are an assumed function of everyday life. After examining several articles describing and defining Social Informatics, I have a clearer understanding of the concept. The information model (i-model), as described by Ping Zhang and Robert Benjamin in 2007, contains four fundamental concepts – information, technology, organization and society, and people. These four concepts, when surrounded by various contexts, represent today’s model of information society, which can be directly applied to social informatics.
Zhang & Benjamin’s Information model
The “information” section of this model pertains to processes usually discussed by information specialists, such as classification, categorization, or the lifecycle of information. Classification and categorization comes naturally to us at a young age. Humans intuitively want to “sort” information in order to make sense of it. However, with the advent of social media utilizing technology, new types of lifecycles in which information with social purposes needs to be considered, as traditional models of paper or other materials do not always apply to electronic technologies.
Technology, as demonstrated in this i-model, refers to the hardware, software, applications, or other infrastructure and services that operate as interfaces for information. ICT is central to fields such as information science, computer science, engineering, and telecommunications. The fundamental concept of people encompasses those who use ICTs, how they create, disseminate, or use information, as well as how they manage and influence ICTs.
For this i-model, organization and society consists of human gatherings, which may share various levels of values, beliefs, or other such processes. This is similar to Thomas Turino’s culture concept when examining music as social life. Turino stated that society consists of networks and institutions of existing social roles – that we belong to social groups, but we are part of society (2008). Cultural cohorts are social groupings that form based on shared habits and similarities of parts of one’s self (Turino, 2008). Although Turino was referring to music as social life, these same concepts can be applied to social media and subsequent groups. Indeed, social groups with similar interests have historically bonded together. The context has now shifted to included technology as a vehicle for the cultural cohorts.
These four fundamentals, when taken with various contexts, shape social informatics. The context attracts users, who are then defined by the social, cultural, and technological facets (Cole, 2006). Thus, SI is multi-disciplinary. Through the use of ICTs, social informatics identifies problems, and then studies the interaction of the issue within a social context (Sawyer & Rosenbaum, 2000). Computers, cell phones, and other ICTs are deeply embedded in our society, even on a global level. Technical changes have happened quickly, as have our adoptions of the technology – it is difficult to reflect back on the workplace or social networking before cell phones, texting and computers. It seems that our technology is outdated almost as soon as we receive it, resulting in constant changes of applications, platforms and other social tools. Thus, the field of social informatics is vitally important to research as we move forward in social computing.
Cole, F. (2006). Appreciating context in social informatics: From the outside in, and the inside out. Proceedings of ASIS&T Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, Social Informatics Workshop, November 3-8, 2006.
Sawyer, S., & Rosenbaum, H. (2000). Social informatics in the information sciences: Current activities and emerging directions. Informing Science, 3(2).
Turino, T. (2008). Music as social life: The politics of participation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zhang, P. & Benjamin, R. I. (2007). Understanding information related fields: A conceptual framework. Journal of the Amercian Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(13).